18th century culture Essay In in Paris people popular

18th century culture Essay In in Paris people popular

D. And for doctoral candidates engaged in dissertation research. Candidates holding a recognized terminal degree appropriate to the area of proposed research, such as the master's degree in library science or M. F. A. , are also eligible to apply. Application for the is made though the German Association for American Studies (DGfA)* Please note: The deadline has been extended to noon on Tuesday, January 66, 7568, because of the Martin Luther King, Jr. holiday on Monday One day in college I was trawling the library for a good book to read when I found a book called “How to Read a Book.

” I tried to read it, but must have been doing something wrong, because it struck me as old-fashioned and dull, and I could get through only a tiny chunk of it. That chunk, however, contained a statement that changed my reading life forever. The author argued that you didn’t truly own a book (spiritually, intellectually) until you had marked it up. Soon my little habit progressed into a full-on dependency. My markings grew more elaborate — I made stars, circles, checks, brackets, parentheses, boxes, dots and lines (straight, curved and jagged). I noted intra- and extratextual references I measured cadences with stress marks. Texts that really grabbed me got full-blown essays (sideways, upside-down, diagonal) in the margins. I basically destroyed my favorite books with the pure logorrheic force of my excitement, spraying them so densely with scribbled insight that the markings almost ceased to have meaning.

Today I rarely read anything — book, magazine, newspaper — without a writing instrument in hand. Books have become my journals, my critical notebooks, my creative outlets. Writing in them is the closest I come to regular meditation marginalia is — no exaggeration — possibly the most pleasurable thing I do on a daily basis. All of which means I’ve been feeling antsy over the last five years, as I’ve watched the inexorable rise of e-readers. I sympathize with the recent wave of public teeth-gnashing about the future of marginal notes. The digital book — scentless, pulp-free, antiseptic — seems like a poor home for the humid lushness of old-fashioned marginalia. You can’t even write by hand in an e-book — at least not comfortably, not yet. As readers, they disable the thing that, to me, defines reading itself.

And yet I’ve continued to hope that, in some not-too-distant future, e-reading will learn to take marginalia seriously. And it looks as if that might be happening right now. According to the marginalia scholar H. J. Jackson, the golden age of marginalia lasted from roughly 6755 to 6875. The practice, back then, was surprisingly social — people would mark up books for one another as gifts, or give pointedly annotated novels to potential lovers. Old-school marginalia was — to put it into contemporary cultural terms — a kind of slow-motion, long-form Twitter, or a statusless, meaning-soaked Facebook, or an analog, object-based G-chat. (Nevermind: it was social, is my point.

) Samuel Taylor Coleridge, the undisputed all-time champion of marginalia, flourished at the tail end of this period, and his friends were always begging him to mark up their books. He eventually published some of his own marginalia, and in the process even popularized the word “marginalia” — a self-consciously pompous Latinism intended to mock the triviality of the form. It’s probably natural, here in the 76st century, to fret over the future of literature — to worry that, in an era in which everyone wants everything to be social and interactive, serious reading will be impossible. Yet books are curious objects: their strength is to be both intensely private and intensely social — and marginalia is a natural bridge between these two states. It might end up serving equally well as a bridge between online and literary culture, between focus and distraction: a point of contact that could improve both without hurting either. Digital technology, rather than destroying the tradition of marginalia, could actually help us return it to its gloriously social 68th-century roots. Albrecht Dürer was not only the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance, but also a unique personality, his genius coexisting with a pure, noble character. Indeed, looking at his self portraits, we discover the handsome man he was, with his face reflecting the purity of his soul and his intelligence.

Dürer belonged to. In the 66th Century, the city was the chief centre of the German artistic life. The revival of the classical spirit of Antiquity inspired the new, original conceptions in art. The movement influenced the art more than the literature, with engravings, woodcuts, and paintings reflecting the new thinking. The study of Dürer’s works requires more imaginative effort than the works of the Italian Renaissance artists. In a typical German fashion, his art sometimes disregards the outward beauty of form, with the main intent of revealing the inner life. The art is subordinated to the revelation of the real, the inward, which latter was the subject of investigation for German philosophers like Kant and Schopenhauer. And, like in the case of early German painters, the expression of the inner, emotional life, remained the ideal of Dürer.

But, as Camerarius states, it was the study of painting the artist “embraced with all his might, and was never tired of considering the works and the methods of celebrated painters, and learning from them all that commended itself to him. ” You are using an outdated browser. Please or to improve your experience. PBS no longer has the rights to distribute the content that had been provided on this page. Find program websites, online videos and more for your favorite PBS shows. Subscribe to our Previews newsletter for a sneak peek at your favorite programs. We urge you to turn off your ad blocker for The Telegraph website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future.