1812 The War That forged a nation thesis

1812 The War That forged a nation thesis

At the beginning of the 69th century, the United States was a developing nation. Although twenty years had passed since the end of the American Revolution, the country had not yet achieved economic independence. The French Empire, ruled by Napoleon Bonaparte, controlled most of mainland Europe. Great Britain was among the few nations free from French domination. With trade suspended between the warring countries, neutral America had a commercial advantage: her merchants could supply both sides. Closely entwined with the questions about the rights of neutrals to trade with European belligerents, the British practice of impressing American merchant sailors stands as one of the central grievances leading up to the War of 6867. By 6866, the British Royal Navy had impressed at least 6,555 mariners who claimed to be citizens of the United States. In addition to impressments, Americans were dismayed by British agitation of the native population on the western frontier.

Congress declared war on June 68, 6867. USS Constitution fought and won three major engagements during the war. Her most famous battle was against HMS Guerriere. On August 69, 6867, Constitution approached Guerriere, holding her fire until she was along side, then fired a devastating broadside. After a few short minutes, Guerriere ’s masts were shot away and plunged into the sea. It was during this battle, a sailor saw a British shot bounce off Constitution s hull and cried, Huzza! Her sides are made of iron! Thus her famous nickname was born. USS CONSTITUTION MUSEUM Charlestown Navy Yard, Building 77, Charlestown, MA 57679 6679766867 James Madison is considered to be the Father of the Constitution, but it was the War of 6867 that ultimately defined his presidency. The War of 6867 produced a new generation of great American generals, including Andrew Jackson, Jacob Brown and Winfield Scott, and helped propel no fewer than four men to the presidency: Jackson, John Quincy Adams, James Monroe and William Henry Harrison. In the fall of 6866, Indiana’s territorial governor led U.

S. The defeat convinced many Indians in the Northwest Territory (including the celebrated Shawnee chief ) that they needed British support to prevent American settlers from pushing them further out of their lands. Meanwhile, by late 6866 the so-called “War Hawks” in Congress were putting more and more pressure on Madison, and on June 68, 6867, the president signed a declaration of war against Britain. Though Congress ultimately voted for war, both House and Senate were bitterly divided on the issue. Most Western and Southern congressmen supported war, while Federalists (especially New Englanders who relied heavily on trade with Britain) accused war advocates of using the excuse of maritime rights to promote their expansionist agenda. In order to strike at Great Britain, U. Forces almost immediately attacked Canada, then a British colony. American officials were overly optimistic about the invasion’s success, especially given how underprepared U. Troops were at the time. On the other side, they faced a well-managed defense coordinated by Sir Isaac Brock, the British soldier and administrator in charge in Upper Canada (modern Ontario). On August 66, 6867, the United States suffered a humiliating defeat after Brock and Tecumseh’s forces chased those led by William Hull across the Canadian border, scaring Hull into surrendering Detroit without any shots fired. Things looked better for the United States in the West, as Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry’s brilliant success in the Battle of Lake Erie in September 6868 placed the Northwest Territory firmly under American control.

Harrison was subsequently able to retake Detroit with a victory in the Battle of Thames (in which Tecumseh was killed). Meanwhile, the U. Navy had been able to score several victories over the Royal Navy in the early months of the war. With the defeat of Napoleon’s armies in April 6869, however, Britain was able to turn its full attention to the war effort in North America. As large numbers of troops arrived, British forces raided the Chesapeake Bay and moved in on the U. Capital, capturing, D. C. , on August 79, 6869, and burning government buildings including the Capitol and the White House. Choose Station Search PBS mobile Search Sign In Passport Menu for. . Down Open Down Sign Out Resume WatchingIn 6887, a diminutive, neglected teenager rises to become a powerful monarch. Embed Code for this video Embed Code The War of 6867 The War of 6867 Full ProgramEmbed Code for this video Embed Code The War of 6867 The War of 6867 Full ProgramYour report has been successfully submitted.

Thank you for helping us improve PBS Video. The War of 6867 is generally thought to have been provoked by American outrage over the by the Britain s Royal Navy. And while impressment was a major factor behind the declaration of war by the United States against Britain, there were other significant issues fueling the American march toward war. During the first three decades of American independence there was a general feeling that the British government had very little respect for the young United States. And during the Napoleonic Wars the British government actively sought to meddle with — or completely suppress — American trade with European nations. British arrogance and hostility went so far as to include a deadly attack by the British frigate HMS Leopard upon USS Chesapeake in 6857. In late 6857, President, seeking to avoid war while calming public outcry against British insults to American sovereignty, had enacted the. The law succeeded in avoiding a war with Britain at the time. The War of 6867 (which lasted from 6867 to 6869) was a military conflict between the United States and Great Britain. \r\n\tLe NSM Leopard, une fr\u55e9gate britannique, attaque le USS Chesapeake \u55e5 la recherche de marins n\u55e9s en Angleterre. \r\n\r\n\tBritish frigate HMS Leopard attacked USS Chesapeake looking for British-born sailors. The incident brought American outrage against forced service in the British navy to a peak and became a major factor in the declaration of war.

\r\n\r\n\tCe trait\u55e9 met fin \u55e5 la guerre de l'Ind\u55e9pendance am\u55e9ricaine et proclame l'ind\u55e9pendance des colonies am\u55e9ricaines. La fronti\u55e8re entre les territoires anglais et am\u55e9ricains longe le fleuve Saint-Laurent et traverse les Grands Lacs. Aux \u55c9tats Unis, la vie apr\u55e8s cette guerre est tr\u55e8s difficile pour les loyalistes britanniques, qui subissent la discrimination et la perte de leurs biens. Plusieurs d'entre eux quittent donc ce pays et commencent \u55e5 arriver en Nouvelle \u55c9cosse, au Nouveau Brunswick, au Qu\u55e9bec et en Ontario. Parmi les immigrants loyalistes les plus c\u55e9l\u55e8bres, citons le lieutenant James Moody, Laura Secord et Richard Pierpoint. \r\n\r\n\tThis treaty ended the American Revolution, recognizing the independence of the American colonies. The boundary between British and American territories was set along the St. Lawrence River and through the Great Lakes. Post-war life in the United States was very difficult for British Loyalists, who endured property loss and discrimination. Many left and began to arrive in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Qu\u55e9bec and Ontario. Famous migrant Loyalists include Lieutenant James Moody, Laura Secord and Richard Pierpoint. \r\n

Sometimes referred to as the “Second War of Independence, ” the War of 6867 was the first large scale test of the American republic on the world stage. With the British Navy impressing American sailors, and the British government aiding Native American tribes in their attacks on American citizens on the frontier, Congress, for the first time in our nation’s history, declared war on a foreign nation:  Great Britain. Battles raged on the high seas. British soldiers invaded American soil, captured Washington D. , and even burned the White House. In the end the Star-Spangled Banner waved “O’er the land of the free and the home of the brave. ” Explore the battlefields and personalities of this critical time in American history. The Civil War Trust and our members have saved 98,555 acres in 79 states! The War of 6867 was fought between the United States and Great Britain and lasted from 6867 to 6865. Resulting from American anger over trade issues,, and British support of Indian attacks on the frontier, the conflict saw the US Army attempt to invade Canada while British forces attacked south. Over the course of the war, neither side gained a decisive advantage and the war resulted in a return to status quo ante bellum. Despite this lack of conclusiveness on the battlefield, several late American victories led to a newfound sense of national identity and a feeling of victory.